Original Title: Wuhan Municipal Bureau of Human Resources and Social Security Releases Wuhan Employment Prosperity Index for the First Half of 2019
On August 6, 2019, the Municipal Human Resources and Social Security Bureau and Wuhan Development Strategy Research Institute released the Wuhan Employment Prosperity Index for the first half of 2019.
In the first half of 2019, Wuhan's "employment stabilization" effect was prominent and the employment situation remained generally stable. The employment prosperity index was 111.89, of which the employment expansion capability index was 111.42; the human resources market operation prosperity index was 107.55; the mass entrepreneurial prosperity index was 115.8; the employment quality boom Index 110.92; employment prosperity index 115.39 for key groups; employment service and environment prosperity index 115.18.
In the first half of 2019, the city actively implemented various “stability employment” policies and kept close to the bottom line of people ’s livelihood. Under the complicated domestic and foreign situations and increasing economic downward pressure, the city ’s employment situation in the first half of the year remained generally positive. The employment prosperity index was 111.89, which was 3.2, 1.0, and 0.29 higher than the same period of 2016, 2017, and 2018, and 0.4 higher than the first quarter of this year. The index continued to rise steadily in the expansion zone. In terms of sub-indexes, except for the human resources market operation index, which is in a stable area due to the decrease in market activity, the five indexes of employment expansion capacity, mass entrepreneurship, employment quality, key population employment, employment services and environment are all expanding. Area.
The overall employment situation has improved, thanks to the following three positive factors: First, it has benefited from high-quality economic development. Although the city's main economic indicators in the first half of the year fell year-on-year and month-on-month, it still maintained the forefront among similar cities across the country, and the rapid economic growth laid the foundation for the stable employment scale. At the same time, due to the implementation of the new development concept throughout the city and the promotion of high-quality development, the "gold content" of economic growth is higher and the ability to drive employment is stronger. The second benefit is the release of reform dividends. The reform of deregulation and decentralization and the "decentralization of services" was further promoted. The innovation and entrepreneurial vigor of various market entities continued to increase. In the first half of the year, the number of newly registered market entities in our city was 96,900, a year-on-year increase of 7%. Created a lot of jobs. The third is due to the increase in the resilience of the labor market. A series of policies and measures, such as reducing social insurance rates and increasing unemployment insurance premiums, were implemented, and large-scale vocational skills training was launched, with policy effects continuing to play. At the same time, various employment service activities were intensively organized, more than 1,000 job fairs were organized, and more than 500,000 person-times of free employment services were provided, raising the labor market fever.
While the overall employment situation remains stable, some new situations and new problems have emerged, which should be given great attention.
First, the scale of employment has steadily expanded, but the overall employment pressure has not decreased. The main manifestations are: insufficient post supply. In the first half of the year, due to the downward pressure on the economy, the labor demand of enterprises decreased significantly. From the human resource market supply and demand data, compared with the same period of previous year and the first quarter of this year, not only the number of jobs provided by companies, the number of job seekers in the market, etc., have significantly decreased, but the number of companies recruiting on the market has also dropped sharply, from 4796 to 3,496, a decline of nearly 30%. In addition, the city promotes the "Million University Students Studying and Starting a Job in China". Every year, more than 300,000 university students are studying in Han. However, the city can provide more than 300,000 jobs every year. It is also necessary to solve the problem of migrant workers and urban employment. Employment of groups of people in need. About 300,000 college graduates in Wuhan are expected this year. To “stay” and “stay” these college students, the task of developing more high-quality jobs is heavy and stressful. Existing posts are also being lost. The monitoring of the unemployment of 743 enterprises in the city shows that the number of employed persons in 459 enterprises has decreased, accounting for more than 60% of the total number of monitored persons, and the number of employed persons has decreased by 16,321. From the perspective of the industry, only the water conservancy, environmental and public facilities management industry and Employment in the residential services, repair and other services industries increased, while employment in the other 16 industries decreased to varying degrees. In addition, in the first half of the year, the number of companies participating in this year's "Spring Action" decreased from 125,000 last year to 11,000, and the number of jobs provided decreased from 323,000 last year to 250,000. Both the number of companies and the number of jobs declined. . Judging from the current situation, the Sino-US trade friction has little impact on the production and operation of the enterprises in our city. The questionnaire survey  shows that less than 30% of the companies believe that the Sino-US trade friction has an impact on the development of the company, and the impact is small. However, it cannot be ruled out that the intensified trade frictions in the future will cause some job losses to bring pressure to the city's employment.
Second, the new employment space has steadily expanded, but related supporting policies such as labor relations and social security need to be further improved. In recent years, with the acceleration of the transformation of new and old kinetic energy in the economy and the continuous upgrading of consumption, the city ’s economy has “increased in new content”, new industries, new formats, new platforms, and new occupations have emerged. 5G communications, artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, The demand for new occupations such as data has gradually increased. New career practitioners in the life service industry, such as baby-care teachers, travel planners, takeaway operation planners, e-sports consultants, and house designers, also have a certain scale and the development momentum is quite strong. The vigorous development of new technologies, new industries and new formats has significantly expanded the employment space, and the rise of new occupations has driven employment growth. According to relevant research reports, the contribution rate of new kinetic energy to new employment across the country is more than two-thirds, and the number of new occupations in Wuhan is also considerable. The number of new occupations and the average salary are ranked eighth in the country.
The development of new occupations and new forms of employment has become a trend. From 2014 to 2019, China has issued 13 batches of more than 130 new occupations. However, new occupations, especially those in the service industry, are more in flexible employment, platform employment, self-employment, and tourism, fitness, entertainment, parent-child, leisure and other formats. The working population is basically 80, 90, post-secondary And below. These new occupations and forms of employment are largely beyond the scope of the current traditional labor security. Employment security and stability are insufficient, and they are not attractive to older, highly educated people who expect stable employment. In addition, the society has prejudices and misunderstandings about certain new industries and new occupations. It is also necessary to continuously improve publicity and support to increase the driving force of new occupations for employment.
Third, salary and benefits have been steadily improved, but the enthusiasm of talents to study in China still needs to be effectively stimulated. According to Zhilian's recruitment report for the “Summer 2019 Chinese Employer Demand and White Collar Talent Supply”, Wuhan ’s average salary this summer was 8,229 yuan / month, ranking among the top ten nationwide. Compared with the spring of 7,653 yuan / month, it rose 576 yuan, a month-on-month increase The largest of 37 important cities in the country. Judging from the distribution of salary, positions with an average monthly salary of 4001 yuan / month to 6000 yuan / month accounted for 30.3% of the total number of posts, and 34.9% accounted for more than 8,000 yuan / month, an increase from the previous quarter. Among them, the monthly salary of financial services, IT services and other positions reached about 10,000 yuan.
At the same time, in order to introduce and retain talents, Wuhan has recently introduced 10 key measures, including housing security, job development, financial support, and living support, to ensure that the city ’s special talent investment for the whole year will reach 1.5 billion yuan. The above accounted for more than 1% of the local general public budget revenue.
From the monitoring data of the human resources market, compared with the previous quarter, the overall cultural level of job seekers has improved to a certain extent. The proportion of job seekers with a college degree or above has increased by about 7 percentage points compared with the previous quarter. This is the graduation season. The peak of university student signing also reflects the good benefits brought by the increase in salary and salary and sufficient policy supply in Wuhan.
However, from the data of university students studying in Han, 50,000 university students settled in Wuhan in the first half of this year, compared with 74,000 people settled in the same period of last year, a certain decline. The domestic "grabbing war" has become increasingly fierce, and the five national departments Jointly issued the "Notice on University Graduates' Employment and Entrepreneurship Work in the Current Situation," requiring provincial capitals and cities below to fully liberalize restrictions on university graduates, vocational college graduates, and returnees studying abroad, and streamline residence credentials. , Simplifying procedures, relying on policies to motivate talents to study in Han is no longer enough. The "Research Report on the Employability of New Graduates in 2019" also shows that job hunting for college graduates focuses first on knowledge acquisition and personal value realization, and secondly on salary levels. Talent and agglomeration require not only good policies and high salaries, but also a solid industrial foundation, numerous excellent companies, and a good learning atmosphere.
Fourth, the enthusiasm of dual ventures has been steadily boosted, but the role of employment in entrepreneurship needs to be further strengthened. As the “double innovation” work continues to deepen, the city ’s double innovation space continues to expand. Since the beginning of this year, 30 new incubation institutions above the provincial level have been added; policy support has gradually increased, and research and introduction of Wuhan ’s entrepreneurial incubation demonstration bases have been made. The 11 municipal demonstration bases were allocated bonus funds in accordance with the standard of 150,000 yuan each; business support was strengthened, and 534 new business guarantee loans were issued in the city, amounting to 96.01 million yuan, and a one-time start-up subsidy and vocational skills were cumulatively implemented. Various employment subsidy funds such as appraisal subsidies amounted to 860 million yuan, and played the guiding role of the city's science and technology venture investment guidance fund. The establishment of 46 parent and sub-funds was approved, with a total scale of 16.9 billion yuan. The organization of provincial university student entrepreneurship project applications was organized. 496 support projects were approved, and 16.25 million yuan was supported. Rural self-employed farmers were included in the scope of business guarantee loans. In the first half of the year, the city supported a total of 20,400 people in entrepreneurship, which led to the employment of 61,200 people. Among them, the city added 30,400 people to return to their hometowns to start businesses, and 12,000 people to return to their hometowns.
Although the number of entrepreneurs is increasing, the university students studying abroad have a weak willingness to start a business. Questionnaire surveys show that only 2.25% of the students studying abroad want to start their own business after graduation. The survey data of Zhilian Recruitment also shows that only 2.4% of college students choose to start a business nationwide, which is a decrease of 2.38% year-on-year. In addition, since 2016, the number of entrepreneurs driving employment has decreased from 1 person to 4.6 employees, and 1 person to entrepreneurs driving 3 employees. On the one hand, the level of entrepreneurship is not high enough, and the ability to drive employment is not strong. On the other hand, it also reflects that under the pressure of economic downturn, people are more likely to stabilize their careers and are more willing to find employment in large companies and enterprises. In 2019, fresh graduates are waiting to see startup companies, and 43.28% of graduates are on the sidelines, and do not easily choose startup companies with higher risks.
Fifth, the employment of key groups has been implemented steadily, but the phenomenon of "slow employment" among college students cannot be ignored. In the first half of the year, we steadily promoted the employment of key populations, carried out more than 200 events (such as spring breeze operations, employment assistance months, community walks, village walks, etc.), organized 11,500 employers, and implemented various employment assistance programs. Support mechanism, providing 301,000 jobs for college students, rural labor transfer, and people with employment difficulties, and promoting the employment of 72,100 people. Among them, help people with various employment difficulties to achieve employment of 14,000 people, and realize the transfer of 177,000 people in rural labor force. Help the construction of employment of the poor labors in the archives, and promote the employment of 1,057 poor labors. We distributed 257 million yuan of social security subsidies for people with difficulty in finding employment and 30 million yuan of corporate social security subsidies, which stabilized and promoted employment for 93,000 people.
Help college students find employment, build more than 750 college student internships (trainings) and employment apprenticeship bases, organize more than 35,000 college student internships (trainings) and employment apprenticeships, issue internships (trainings) and employment apprenticeship subsidies of nearly 8 million yuan, and issue colleges The one-time job subsidy for graduates is 33.384 million yuan. To undertake and organize cross-regional round-trip recruitment and "Wuhan well-known enterprise colleges and universities" recruitment activities, providing 53,000 jobs and 44,400 job seekers. Carry out "one-on-one" services for unemployed college students in 2018, and promote the employment of 1605 people.
Although the employment of key groups has been progressing steadily, the phenomenon of "slow employment" has emerged and intensified in recent years. "Slow employment" is a kind of education that is not intended to be immediately employed after graduation, nor is it intended to continue further education. Investigation of entrepreneurship and slowly considering the phenomenon of life, some college graduates use "slow employment" to avoid employment challenges. The questionnaire survey showed that the "slow employment" phenomenon accounted for 11.8% of Wuhan fresh graduates in 2019. The research report of Zhilian Recruitment also shows that this proportion in the country has also reached 8%, which is on a year-on-year increase. Different from the employment concepts of "post-80s" and "employment before employment", "post-90s", especially the "post-95s" of the new generation of employment groups, due to their superior family conditions and low economic burden, For reasons such as increased career planning awareness, the phenomenon of "slow employment" is more obvious, and employment is no longer a must for graduates. This is an autonomous choice, and to a certain extent it also brings certain challenges to the city's employment.
Sixth, employment services have been steadily increased, but structural contradictions in employment will continue to exist. In the first half of the year, special surveys on the employment of service enterprises were carried out in key areas such as economic development zones and Wuhan Iron and Steel, and key enterprises, and targeted assistance was provided to enterprises. Organized special service activities such as "Operation of Spring Wind", "hundred employment commissioners to serve thousands of enterprises", "relationship between Han enterprise recruitment through train", "private enterprise recruitment week" and other special service activities to serve enterprises. A total of 123 million yuan in job security subsidies were granted, benefiting 1854 enterprises and 337,200 employees. Strengthen the construction of grass-roots service platforms, recommend and recognize 9 provincial “full employment star-rated communities”, 76 provincial “full employment communities”, and 73 municipal “full employment communities” in 2018, and allocate 1.063 million yuan in award funds . Promote the construction of employment informatization, and complete the localization development and online operation of the provincial employment information system in Wuhan. The development of the human resources service industry has a good momentum, and the construction of human resources service capabilities and integrity systems is accelerating.
Actively carry out employment training, improve the skills of employees, and improve job matching. It is the first in the province to introduce the "Wuhan New Apprenticeship Training Subsidy Measures", and has successively studied and drafted implementation opinions to improve the treatment of skilled workers in our city, and promoted life-long vocational skills. A total of 29,700 people participated in employment training through policy documents such as opinions on the training system.
Although employment services and trainings have been intensified, the “recruitment difficulties” of enterprises still exist, and structural employment contradictions still need to be eased. Judging from the occupational supply and demand data of the human resources market, in the second quarter, the number of corporate job demands was 34,656, and the market job seeker number was 27,299. The comprehensive job enrollment ratio was 1.27. Although the job enrollment ratio decreased from the previous month, it was still at a high level. The situation remains. In addition, in the process of the traditional industry's transition to digitalization, many enterprises have increased their demand for new occupations such as industrial robot system operators and system operation and maintenance personnel. A recent related questionnaire survey shows that 64.8% of the enterprises lacking jobs are lack of technical staff, and 21.4% are skilled workers. At present, the city's strategic emerging industries are in the ascendant state, and the construction of five new industrial bases is accelerating. A large number of highly skilled personnel are needed, but there is a large gap in senior skilled personnel, and middle and senior technicians have been in a "labor shortage" situation for a long time. The next step is to innovate training models and service methods to better connect enterprises with employment.
In response to the above characteristics and problems, the next stage must firmly grasp the general tone of "stabilizing employment" and further promote employment from six aspects: First, strengthen situation research and policy implementation. The second is to strengthen employment support for the service industry and the new economy. The third is to strengthen the work of dual innovation. The fourth is to enhance the employment skills of workers. Fifth, strengthen employment assistance for key groups. Sixth is to strengthen the upgrading and transformation of the human resources market.
Editor-in-chief: Zhang Li